Understanding STDs – Gonorrhea (part 3)

Gonorrhea, also called the “clap” and the “drip” is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrheoae and can affect any sexually active individual. It is the second most common sexually transmitted diseases.  It is reported  that in the US alone, it has affected more than  700,000 men and women  each year,  with  the  highest occurrence among teenagers  and adults in the early and late twenties.

Generally, gonorrhea can infect the women’s reproductive tract ( vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes for women) and the men’s genitalia but the infection could reach the urethra (urine canal), throat, anus and mouth  and  even in the eyes depending on the sexual activity.

Who are at risk 

The  virus can also  be spread  by the exchange of bodily fluid.  In oral sex, the virus can be transmitted from the genitals to the throat of the person giving the stimulation or vise versa. Anyone engaged in any sexual relations can be infected, but you are of higher  risk  if:

  • you don’t use condoms or dental  dams
  • you have multiple sexual partners
  • you have weak immune system due to  certain medical conditions  and medications
  • have  had other sexually transmitted  diseases before such as chlamydia

Gonorrhea can also be spread from an untreated mother to her child in a vaginal child birth.

 

Symptoms

Most gonorrhea cases  do not show any symptoms.  Four  out  or five infected women have asymptomatic condition, while with men, one out of ten affected individuals do not show any symptom at all. But if you do get the symptoms, you may experience them within the first two weeks after  being infected.

Symptoms may include:

  • a burning sensation when urinating
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • burning sensation  in the throat (due to oral sex) or swollen throat glands
  • greenish or yellow discharge from the male and female genitalia
  • tenderness or pain in the genital area or abdomen
  • rectal pain and discharge when the anus is infected
  • for women, bleeding between menstrual cycles and spotting during intercourse
  • for women, swelling and tenderness of the vulva (the external female genitalia. It includes the labia, clitoris, the openings to the urethra and  the vagina)
  • if the bacteria reaches the bloodstream, they may travel throughout the body and cause a mild fever, joint pains, and a rash, particularly on the palms of the hands.

Treatment

Physicians normally prescribe antibiotics for a week or two for treatment. Antibiotics can work two ways: some medications, like penicillins, destroy the bacterium’s wall, causing it to break down in smaller, unharmful particles. It can also block the production of proteins inside the bacterium, which prevents it from reproducing.

Consult your doctor and don’t self medicate. Some patients with gonorrhea may, unknowingly, also have chlamydial infections. If you or your partner have any of these symptoms,consult  with a physician so you can get be advised  of the right dosage. While under medication,  you will be advised to abstain from any sexual contact until it can  be ensured that the infection is cured.

Gonorrhea can be cured in a week or two if  the treatment  plan is strictly  adhered to, but  it can recur. You and your partner should be regularly tested for gonorrhea to avoid further complications.

Complications

Untreated gonorrhea , in both men and women  can  lead to other severe conditions. Three out of 100 women and men with untreated gonorrhea develop a condition called disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) which  causes arthritis and skin sores. DGI also includes joint pain and fever.

Untreated, it can also cause infertility to both men and women.  In women, the infection could reach the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes, a condition called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and could affect a woman’s ability to get pregnant. In men, the infection could reach the urethra and the testicles. Untreated, it can result in a condition called epididymitis, the inflammation of the tubes at the back of each testicles that store and house the sperm until maturity.

Gonorrhea in pregnant women can lead to stillbirth  and premature labor. If an infected mother gives birth through vaginal delivery, the baby is susceptible to blood, joint and eye infections.

Gonorrhea is highly curable so treat it as soon as you can before it leads to other complications. 

 

 

Web Sources:

http://www.avert.org/gonorrhea.htm

http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/stds-hiv-safer-sex/gonorrhea-4269.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea.htm

 

 

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